Conservation Commons on Twitter: "SmithsonianWls: RT @SMBC: Many of the migratory bird species currently heading south will overwinter in Bird Friendly® coffee farms. Help us continue to #BringBirdsBack and find your perfect

Traditionally, coffee was grown commercially under other trees that provided shade. Indeed, in its natural wild state, coffee much prefers shade in the heat of the tropics.

However, since the 1970s, new sun-tolerant coffee plants have been developed with the aim to yield higher production rates to produce larger yields through higher-density, open planting over huge areas of land.

Unfortunately, this cultivation practice of open planting is completely unsustainable, destroys the land through overexposure to the sun, and has a negative impact on the environment that is not talked enough about.

So, what is Shade Grown Coffee?

  1. As a result of environmental degradation, the concept of Shade Grown Coffee, a return to traditional coffee farming, was born. A canopy of assorted types of shade trees is created to cultivate shade-grown coffee, which incorporates principles of natural ecology to promote natural ecological relationships.
  2. Indeed, recent research points to a direct correlation between the structural complexity of a coffee plantation and the number of species found. In short, Shade Grown Coffee increases biodiversity. It’s a no-brainer really and similar to what we see with other monocultures that destroy biodiversity.
  3. The forest-like structure of shade coffee farms provides habitat for a great number of migratory and resident birds, reptiles, ants, butterflies, bats, plants, and other organisms. Actually, of all agricultural land uses, shade-grown coffee supports the highest diversity of migratory birds, native flora, and fauna.

Here are some bite-size facts about Shade Grown Coffee:

  • It helps plant diversity with typically 90 to 120 species of plant and 13 to 58 species of tree on a single site. Herb diversity is typically 3 to 4 times higher as well.
  • It helps insect diversity with 609 species of insect found in a Shade Grown Coffee site in Mexico.
  • It helps both native and migratory bird species diversity. For example, 184 bird species (including 46 migratory bird species) were found on a single Shade Grown Coffee site in Mexico.
  • This compares with as few as 6-12 bird species found in unshaded coffee monocultures.
  • In a study of shade vs. sun coffee comparisons in Guatemala, overall bird abundance and diversity were 30% greater, respectively, in shaded farms than sun farms. Indeed, shade-grown trees housed two-thirds of the bird species found in natural forests in the same geographic area.
  • Shade Grown Coffee promotes mammal diversity. For example, a Shade Grown Coffee site in India found 28 species of mammals in one site alone.
  • Many species of bees are attracted to shaded polycultures that have a variety of flowering plants in addition to coffee. In a shade-grown study in Indonesia, bee populations rose by 90%.
  • It protects soil. The presence of canopy and midstory vegetation in shaded polycultures helps reduce soil erosion as well as stabilize steep, mountainous slopes. Typically, soil moisture is 42% lower in unshaded plantations than in shaded plantations and there is significantly less runoff of surface water in shaded plantations than in unshaded plantations.
  • It acts as a carbon sink. Just like natural forests, the carbon sequestered in a shade‐grown coffee farm’s shade trees will be stored in the tree trunks, limbs, leaves, and roots of the foliage as opposed to being in the atmosphere and adding to global warming.

So, the conclusion here is greater densities of birds, mammals, plants, trees, and insects are found in shade-grown coffee sites than in local natural habitats. This is most likely due to the greater abundance of bird-dispersed fruit trees, flowering plants, and insects found in the shade sites.

Bird communities in traditional polycultures are composed mainly of canopy species feeding on fruit, insects, and nectar.

In addition to the animal and plant diversity, being farmed organically, there are no pesticides to kill species diversity. The diversity and harmony found in shaded polycultures allow for relatively complex food webs to form. Birds and mammals alike play a large role in pest control by eating many herbivorous insects.

An example of this is in Jamaica. In one coffee plantation, birds were excluded and this rapidly resulted in a 70% increase in coffee berry borer pest infections into coffee plants.

Another example is in Puerto Rico, which used enclosure plots to exclude lizards, but this only resulted in an increase in leafminers - an insect that is a serious pest to coffee plants.

So, on the evidence, Shade Grown Coffee is a no-brainer really, yet there is still far too few Shade Grown Coffee plantations and we need to make to shout out about this and grow this movement towards greater biodiversity on our coffee plantations.

Where to Buy Bird Friendly Coffee | Smithsonian's National Zoo

The Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center in the United States has developed the only 100% Organic and Shade Grown coffee certification in the world called Bird Friendly Certification.

No other bag guarantees that every bean is produced organically and under the high-quality shade, ensuring tropical "agroforests" are preserved and migratory birds find a healthy haven when they travel from northern climes to those faraway farms producing the beans.

With widespread clear-cutting for sun coffee plantations, it's imperative to protect the tropical forest that remains and rehabilitate degraded ecosystems.

Every cup of Bird Friendly coffee you drink encourages more farmers to grow in the shade, which is good for birds and for people.

Firstly, the coffee is certified Organic, which means managing a healthy soil base and applying no harmful pesticides to the coffee that could otherwise runoff into streams and rivers. This helps reduce the billions of pounds of noxious chemicals injected annually into natural ecosystems that support wildlife and communities.

Second, a variety of native shade trees are grown throughout the coffee plantation. The combination of foliage cover, tree height, and animal diversity provides suitable migratory bird habitat while maintaining productive farms. Producers must be recertified every three years to ensure they continue to meet these requirements and can truly call themselves Bird Friendly.

Third, our coffees are Fairtrade Certified, which ensures producers in developing countries are paid a fair price for their work, by companies in developed countries based on partnerships, which means that the interests of farmers and workers are just as important as other commercial considerations.

Key principles ensure that trading practices are fair and not one-sided, prices paid are fair and sufficient for producers and workers to earn more than enough to meet their day-to-day needs, payments are made in advance to ensure the supplier can fulfill orders, and safe working conditions including non-discrimination and welfare of children.


Sun Grown Coffee

Use chemical fertilizers ✔

Apart from coffee, there is little other plants and trees to absorb water during heavy rains, so the fertilizers are leached out and pollute the watercourses. This in turn erodes the soil.

Use chemical pesticides ✔

Pesticides protect the coffee from pests including birds, insects, and other animals. This helps increase coffee yields due to a reduction in wastage. Unfortunately, the lack of biodiversity means there’s no food for birds to feed on, so sun-grown plantations have almost no biodiversity whatsoever.

Sun grown coffee ✔

The clue is in the name – coffee does not naturally grow in the sun, but when planted in direct sunlight, it grows very fast allowing two harvests a year and higher yields. Unfortunately, the sun burns the soil that is now out into the open and rapidly degrades the soil, and increases erosion. Unfortunately, this system destroys soil health and requires ever greater fertilizers to maintain yields. A vicious circle. Eventually, this soil will no longer be suitable for coffee growing and the coffee farmer will move on – very possibly to virgin land.

Mechanized system with “roads” in-between coffee plant rows ✔

Very often rainforest is deforested for high-density open planting over huge areas of land – the ultimate industrialized agriculture system. The “roads” in between the coffee plant rows are used for machine to mechanically harvest, thereby reducing local employment by up to 90% in some cases.

No other plants ✔

Sun grown coffee plantations are monocultures. This is the most efficient method to maximize yield and profits. This means there is no or little habitat for other animals, including migrating birds, to settle or feed there.

Shade Grown & Bird Friendly Organic Plantations

Organic ✔

There are no chemical fertilizers or pesticides used on shade-grown bird-friendly coffee plantations.

This prevents the leaching of fertilizers into water courses and allows rich biodiversity for animals, including birds, to feed on.

Shade-grown land is typically three to four times higher in biodiversity than sun-grown coffee plantations!

Shade Grown ✔

Coffee is grown in the shade of various trees and bushes. Coffee grows naturally in the shade and this is essentially how coffee grows in the wild.

This helps protect the land from the burning sun and allows the plantation to flourish for generations without soil degradation or erosion.

Likewise, drainage is improved due to the increased tree cover, which protects the leaching of the soil.

Bird-Friendly ✔

Shade Grown Bird Friendly coffee plantations are the ideal environment for birds, including migrating birdlife, because there is both habitat and biodiversity for feeding.

Furthermore, these plantations are here for the long term allowing migrating birds to flourish and return year after year.